Research Report

Varietal Performance on Flowering of Different Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica) at Sarlahi, Nepal  

Kiran Thapa1 , Rupesh Chaudhary2 , Pratiksha Sharma3 , Sunil Kumar Chaudhary4 , Poojan Adhikari1 , Pawan Pyakurel1 , Arati Chapai1
1 College of Natural Resource Management, Bardibas, Mahottari, 45700, Nepal
2 Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, 44800, Nepal
3 Department of economics and agri-business management, Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, 44800, Nepal
4 Plant Protection Officer, Tropical Horticulture Centre, Sarlahi, 45800, Nepal
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2024, Vol. 14, No. 3   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2024.14.0018
Received: 06 Apr., 2024    Accepted: 17 May, 2024    Published: 21 Jun., 2024
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Thapa K., Chaudhary R., Sharma P., Chaudhary S.K., Adhikari P., Pyakurel P., and Chapai A., 2024, Varietal performance on flowering of different varieties of mango (Mangifera indica) at Sarlahi, Nepal, International Journal of Horticulture, 14(3): 157-162 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2024.14.0018)

Abstract

Floral characteristics of 10 mango varieties were studied during February-June, 2023. Distinct variations were found among the studied varieties. Significant variation were observed in term of length of inflorescence, width of inflorescence, number of male flower per inflorescence, number of female flower per inflorescence, sex ratio, % male flower, % hermaphrodite flower ranging from 20.9 cm to 31.9 cm, 11.3 cm to 19.7 cm, 279 to 1,363, 59 to 230.7, 1.25 to 19.63, 50.8% to 94.1% and 5.93% to 49.24%, respectively. The result revealed in all varieties inflorescence position were found terminal and flowers were of pentamerous type. Jarda has the longest inflorescence (31.9 cm). Dasheri has the widest inflorescence (19.7 cm). Male flowers were more than hermaphrodite flowers across the varieties. Amrapali has the highest number of hermaphrodite flower (230.7). Bombay has the highest number of male flowers (1,363) and highest sex ratio (19.63). From this study, it can be inferred that Amrapali will have more fruit set as it has highest number of hermaphrodite flowers. The findings of the study will be beneficial for breeding purpose while developing new varieties of superior quality.

Keywords
Mango (Mangifera indica); Inflorescence; Hermaphrodite; Sex ratio; Pentamerous

Introduction

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important tropical fruit belonging to the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the choicest fruit in the world. The common habitats of Nepalese mango diversity are tropical plain home gardens, river gorge locations, and subtropical valley (Subedi et al., 2021). Among fruits mango is considered as the king of fruit due to its unique flavor, taste and scent. 

 

Mango is mainly grown in the frost-free areas with very few rainfalls during the time of flowering (Humayun and Babu, 2002). Flowering of mango is detrimental factor in the productivity of mango. In tropical fruits like mango, stems that have spent enough time in rest since the previous flush are able to induce flowers. The most important factor influencing flowering is the time since the last flush (Ramírez and Davenport, 2010). Initiation is the first step for mango to flower which involves cell division and elongation. Mango trees passes through four unique periods of flowering: Swelling of the apical bud, panicle elongation, panicle growth and flowering then fruit set (Lemos et al., 2018). Variability of flowering in mango depends upon variety, tree age, and environmental condition (Palanichamy et al., 2011). 

 

Mango grows in almost all area of Madesh province but good quality grafted mangoes of known varietal identity are mostly grown in Sarlahi district. Moreover, research on the performance of those varieties grown in that area are rare. So, it is necessary to assess the performance of the superior varieties grown in that area. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the floral characters of 10 varieties in the mango orchard of Tropical Horticulture Center, Sarlahi district, Madesh province, Nepal.

 

1 Materials and Methods

1.1 Experiment materaial

The present experiment was conducted in a pre-established orchard of Tropical Horticulture Centre, Sarlahi district, Madesh Province during February-June, 2023.The experiment was conducted on 10 mango varieties viz- Amrapali, Bombay, Baramasi, Kalkatiya, Dasheri, Nam Dok Mai, Jarda, Malda, Mallika and Neelam. 

 

1.2 Experimental design

The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, where a single tree represents a unit of replication. A total of 30 randomly selected trees three from each variety were tagged. One inflorescence from each selected full bloomed tree was taken for reading their physical characteristics like length of the inflorescence, width of the inflorescence, number of male flower per inflorescence, number of hermaphrodite flower per inflorescence, sex ratio.

 

1.3 Data collection

Floral data from 10 varieties of mango were recorded according to the Morpho-Physical characters of mango flower (Saheda et al., 2019). The length of the inflorescence was measured from the base to the tip while width of the inflorescence was measured at the broadest part of the base of the inflorescence. Male and hermaphrodite flowers were counted manually using forceps. Sex ratio, % of male flower and % of hermaphrodite flower were calculated as follows:

 

 

 

 

2 Results and Discussion

2.1 Inflorescence characteristics

In term of color and shape of the inflorescence, a wide variation was noticed among the varieties. All the varieties have pentamerous type of flower at terminal position. The inflorescence color of varieties varied from light green to crimson. Dasheri, Jarda, Malda expressed light green color of inflorescence, Amrapali and Baramasi showed green colored inflorescence whereas Bombay, Kalkatiya, Mallika, Neelam exhibited crimson colored inflorescence and yellowish green colored inflorescence was seen in Nam Dok Mai (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1 Inflorescence of different varieties of mango

 

Dasheri and Neelam has broad pyramidal shaped inflorescence but Mallika exhibited pyramidal shaped inflorescence. Similar findings were also reported by (Saheda et al., 2019). It was observed that, among 10 mango varieties Amrapali, Bombay, Baramasi, Malda and Mallika showed pyramidal shaped inflorescence, Kalkatiya, Nam Dok Mai and Jarda exhibited conical shaped inflorescence and Dasheri, Neelam recorded broad pyramidal shaped inflorescences (Table 1).

 

Table 1 Morphological characters of flower of various mango varieties

 

Results of this research showed that maximum length of the inflorescence (31.9 cm) was recorded in Jarda, Maximum width of the inflorescence (19.7 cm) was recorded in Dasheri, maximum male flowers per inflorescence (1363) and maximum sex ratio (19.63) were seen in Bombay and maximum hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence (230.7) was seen in Amrapali whereas minimum length (20.9 cm) and width (11.3) of the inflorescence (Figure 2), less number of male flowers per inflorescence (195) and minimum sex ratio (1.13) were recorded in Kalkatiya but minimum hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence (59) was recorded in Neelam (Table 2).

 

Figure 2 Flower count of Amrapali

 

Table 2 Inflorescence length (cm), width (cm), Number of male and hermaphrodite flower per inflorescence and sex ratio of different varieties of mango

Note: ‘ns’ represent the values are non-significant; *, **, *** represent significance at 5%, 1% and 0.1% respectively

 

Maximum percentage of hermaphrodite flower per inflorescence (94.1%) was recorded in Bombay followed by Malda (83%) whereas it was minimum in Kalkatiya (50.8%). Maximum percentage of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence (49.24%) was recorded in Kalkatiya followed by Amrapali (44.85%) whereas it was minimum in Bombay (5.93%) (Table 3; Figure 3). These findings are similar with the findings of (Kumar et al., 2014) and (Sinha et al., 2018) who recorded highest percentage of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence in Amrapali (48.45%).

 

Table 3 Percentage of male and hermaphrodite flower of different varieties of mango

Note: ‘ns’ represent the values are non-significant; *, **, *** represent significance at 5%, 1% and 0.1% respectively

 

Figure 3 Male and hermaphrodite flowers in different varieties of mango

 

3 Concluding Remarks 

In conclusion, there is huge variation among the mango varieties in term of floral characters. This gives breeder the opportunity to develop improved varieties using the variability of desirable genotypes. Moreover farmer gets the opportunity to select varieties in term of desirable characters.

 

Authors’ contributions

Kiran Thapa: Writing-original draft, Investigation, conceptualization, Methodology, Data collection and analysis. Rupesh Chaudhary: Investigation, conceptualization, Data collection. Pratiksha Sharma: Writing-review and editing, Methodology, validation. Sunil Kumar Chaudhary: Writing-review and editing, Methodology, validation. Poojan Adhikari: Writing-review and editing, Formal analysis. Pawan Pyakurel: Writing-review and editing, Methodology, Conceptualization. Arati Chapai: Writing-review and editing, to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

 

Acknowledgement

Special gratitude to Tropical Horticulture Center, Sarlahi and Agriculture and forestry university, Bharatpur, Nepal for providing necessary assistance during this research work.

 

Conflict of Interest Disclosure

The authors affirm that this research was conducted without any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

 

References

Humayun M., Babu R.S., Saleh A., and Sankar P.D., 2002, Studies on fruit-bud differentiation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) under South Indian conditions, Journal of Applied Horticulture, 4(1): 27-29.

https://doi.org/10.37855/jah.2002.v04i01.08

 

Kuma M., Ponnuswami V., Jeya K.P., and Saraswathy S., 2014, Influence of season affecting flowering and physiological parameters in mango, Scientific Research and Essays, 9(1): 1-6.

https://doi.org/10.5897/SRE2013.5775

 

Lemos L.M.C., Salomão L.C.C., Siqueira D.L. de Pereira O.L., and Cecon P.R., 2018, Heat unit accumulation and inflorescence and fruit development in ‘Ubá’ mango trees grown in Visconde do Rio Branco-MG, Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 40(2). 

 

Palanichamy V., Mitra B., Saleh A.M., and Sankar P.D., 2011, Studies on fruit-bud differentiation in Mango, Research in Plant Biology, 1(2011): 55-67.

 

Ramirez F., and Davenport T.L., 2010, Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowering physiology, Scientia Horticulturae, 126(2): 65-72.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.06.024

 

Saheda M.D., Balahussaini M., Ramaiah M., and Balakrishna M., 2019, Study on Morpho-Physical Characters of Mango Flower Varieties/Hybrids in Kodur Agro-Climatic Conditions, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(3): 28-38.

https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.803.005

 

Sinha A., Mir H., Rani R., and Prasad B.D., 2018, Studies on floral biology and leaf characteristics of mango hybrids and their parents, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 31(4): 1-6.

https://doi.org/10.9734/CJAST/2018/45986

 

Subedi A., Bajracharya J., Joshi B., Kc H., Gupta S., Regmi H., Baral K., Shrestha P., Thagunna P., Tiwari R., and Sthapit B., 2021, Ecogeographic and genetic diversity analyses of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in Nepal.

 

International Journal of Horticulture
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