Biology of Aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Glover Infesting Isabgol Crop  

S. J. Patil , B. R. Patel
Department of Entomology, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, 385506, India
Author    Correspondence author
Medicinal Plant Research, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 7   doi: 10.5376/mpr.2013.03.0007
Received: 19 Mar., 2013    Accepted: 21 Mar., 2013    Published: 25 Mar., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Patil S.J., et al., 2013, Biology of aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) glover infesting isabgol crop, Medicinal Plant Research, Vol.3, No.7 52-56 (doi: 10.5376/mpr.2013.03.0007)


Studies on the biology of aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glov.)on isabgol were carried out in laboratory condition at department of Agricultural Entomology, C. P. college of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University Sardarkrushinagar during 2008-2009. The results indicated that A. gossypii passed through four nymphal instars. The first instar nymph was oval in shape. The greenish brown to yellowish brown coloured first instar nymph subsequently changed to greenish brown to willow green, spinach and emerald green colour in second, third and fourth instars, respectively. The adult were bottle green to dark green in colour. The average duration of first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs was (2.04±0.16) days, (1.68±0.16) days, (2.00±0.17) days and (1.64±0.13) days, respectively with total nymphal duration of (8.64±0.20) days. The average length of first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs was (0.510±0.007) mm, (0.790±0.014) mm, (1.140±0.012) mm and (1.390±0.013) mm, respectively. The average longevity of adult was recorded as (16.36±0.54) days. Adults measured (1.68±0.020) mm in length and (0.890±0.110) mm in breadth. Average pre-reproduction, reproduction and post-reproduction period was (0.68±0.48) days, (15.50±0.56) days and (1.40±0.12) days, respectively. The total life span of A. gossypii was (23.76±0.65) days. The reproductive potential of the aphid was 46.50±0.65 nymphs per female for its entire life period and the average rate of birth was 6.50±0.52 nymphs per day per female.

Isabgol; Aphis gossypii; Biology

India is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plant. Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Unani and Ayurvedic system of medicine. It belongs to order Plantaginates which consist of only a single family Plantaginacae. This family consists of three genera and about 200 species. These species either are annual or perennial herbs. All of these species except four belong to the genus Plantago. About 10 species of Plantago are recorded in India.

P. ovata is only the cultivated species of the country because of its bold seed. Indian P. ovata is preferred over European Plantago psyllium and Plantago indica (Trease and Evans, 1978). P. ovata is known to be grown as wild in warmer and drier part of the Mediterranean region of India. It is one of the important medicinal crop traditionally cultivated in North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kachchh region of Gujarat. South Western Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab are also produced small quantity of isabgol. In Gujarat, it occupies about 26 641 ha of area, producing about 32 864 M.T. seed and productivity 1.23 M.T. per hectare which is highest in terms of area and production in the world (Anon, 2007; 2008).

1 Result and Discussion    
1.1 Nymph
The nymphs were found to pass through four different nymphal instars when reared on isabgol. Earlier, Passlow and Roubieck (1967), Nayar et al (1981) also recorded four nymphal instars of this pest on various host plants.

1.2 First instar
Freshly borned first instar nymphs were oval in shape, dorsally convex, greenish brown or yellowish-brown in colour with three pairs of legs. Antennae were six segmented, short, filliform and light black in colour. A pair of tube like structure (siphunculi/cornicles) was observed dorsally on the posterior region of abdomen.

Duration (Table 1) of first instar nymph was found minimum of 1 and maximum of 3 days with an average of (2.04±0.16) days.

Table 1 Duration of different nymphal instars of A. gossypii

The body length of first instar nymphs measured from 0.44 to 0.56 mm with an average of (0.510±0.007) mm and breadth 0.34 to 0.44 mm with an average of (0.380±0.005) mm (Table 2).

Table 2 Measurement of different stages of A. gossypii

1.3 Second instar
Freshly moulted second instar nymphs were oval in shape and greenish brown to willow green in colour. They were similar to the first instar nymphs in their general appearance and morphological characters, except in body size. In freshly moulted nymph, the exuvium of the preceding instar was seen near the posterior end of the abdomen.
Duration of the second instar was observed minimum of 1 and maximum of 4 days with an average of (1.68±0.16) days (Table 1). The measurement of second instar nymphs indicated that each nymph varied from 0.66 to 0.96 mm with an average of (0.47±0.01) mm in length and 0.38 mm to 0.56 mm with an a average of (0.470±0.010) mm in breadth (Table 2).

1.4 Third instar
Newly moulted third instar nymphs were spinach in colour and oval in shape. Third instar nymphs were distinguishable in general appearance from that of previous nymphal instars. They possessed three pairs of well developed legs latro-ventrally on three thoracic segments, which become more conspicuous. The antennae were well developed and black in colour.
Duration of the third instar nymphs (Table 1) revealed minimum of 1 and maximum of 4 days with an average of (2.00±0.17) days. Measurement of the third instar nymphs revealed that the nymph varied from 1.00 to 24 mm with an average of (1.140±0.012) mm in length and 0.52 to 0.64 mm with an average of (0.540±0.006) mm in breadth.
1.5 Fourth instar
Fourth instar nymphs were emerald green in colour and similar to that of the third instar nymphs in their general appearance and morphological characteristics except in body size.
The duration of fourth instar nymphs (Table 1) was ranged from 1 and 3 days with an average of (1.64±0.12) days. Measurement values for fourth instar nymphs showed that it varied from 1.28 to 1.52 mm with an average of (1.39±0.13) mm in length and 0.64 to 0.76 mm with an average of (0.71±0.008) mm in breadth (Table 2).
1.6 Total nymphal period
Total nymphal period was considered from birth of first instar nymph to the end of fourth instar. It ranged from 7 to 9 days with an average of (8.46±0.20) days (Table 1). 
As the nymph grows, its colour was changed from greenish brown to willow green, spinach and finally emerald green.
The average duration of first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs was (2.04±0.16), (1.68±0.16), (2.00± 0.17) and (1.64±0.13) days, respectively. However, Ullah (1982), Jamwal et al (1988), have recorded slightly higher (9.42 to 11.48 days) nymphal duration of A. gossypii. The variation might be due to the effect of host plants and climatic conditions.
1.7 Adult
The adults were oval in shape and bottle green to dark green in colour. They were larger in body size than the nymphal stages and possessed a pair of well developed conspicuous black coloured cornicles at posterior region of abdomen. Wings when present were in two pairs and transparent with black veins. The black coloured antennae were much larger in size than the nymph stages.
The longevity of adult (Table 3) was recorded minimum of 11 and maximum of 21 days with an average of (16.36±0.54) days. However, In contrast to above, Kersting et al (1999) showed 12.6 (at 30/35℃) to 39.7 days (15℃) longevity of A. gossypii at different temperatures.

Table 3 Longevity and reproduction parameters of A. gossypii reared on isabgol

The size of adult ranged from 1.54 to 1.92 mm with an average of (1.68±0.20) mm in length and from 0.80 to 1.00 mm with an average of (0.89 ± 0.011) mm in breadth (Table 2).
1.8 Pre-reproduction, reproduction and Post-repro- duction periods
Twenty five newly emerged adults were observed for their pre-reproduction, reproduction and post-reprodu- ction periods. During the study period the average temperature was 22.65℃with relative humidity 52.58%.
The pre-reproduction period was ranged from 0.00 to 1 day with an average of (0.68±0.48) days (Table 3). The female aphid was observed to reproduce for a period of 9 to 22 days with an average of (15.50±0.56) days in laboratory. The post reproduction period was ranged from 1 to 3 days with an average of (1.40±0.12) days.
As per the report of Singh et al (1988) the reproductive period of A. gossypii was 13.0 (G-27) to 14.7 (LD-230) days on different cotton cultivars, which strongly support with the present finding.
1.9 Fecundity
The reproductive potential of A. gossypii was studied by counting the number of individuals produced by each adult aphid during its reproduction period. The female had produced minimum of 19 and maximum of 74 individuals with an average of 46.50±0.65 nymphs per female (Table 3). The fecundity of A. gossypii on cotton (21.32 nymphs/female) and okra (25.32 nymphs/female) reported by Desai (2000) is in accordance with the present finding.
It was also recorded that 2.00 to 11.00 young ones (Av. 6.50±0.52) were produced by a female per day when reared on isabgol (Table 3). Whereas, Jayma et al (2007) recorded, 22 young one per day per female this is slightly higher than present finding.
1.10 Total life span
The entire life period (birth to death of individual) of A. gossypii was recorded from 18 days to 29 days with an average of 23.76±0.65 days (Table 3) on isabgol. More or less similar life span of A. gossypii has been reported by Kersting et al (1999) and Desai (2000). However,the reports derived from the above perhaps, this might be due to the effect of host crop or environmental effect. In contrast to this, Kandoria et al (1991) registered longer generation time of 50.73 days and 44.80 days for alate and apterous form of A. gossypii on chilli, respectively.  
2 Material and Method
The present investigations were carried out under north Gujarat condition during the year 2008-2009. The biology of Aphis gossypii Glover and other laboratory studies were conducted in the laboratory of Department of Entomology, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkru- shinagar. The detail of materials used and metho- dology followed during present investigation are given here under.   
2.1 Maintenance of culture of A. gossypii
The culture of A. gossypii was maintained on the isabgol plants raised in the pots and also in the bed prepared near the Department of Entomology. The aphid, A. gossypii collected from the isabgol field were transferred to the plants and allowed to rear on it for maintaining the culture. The plants were covered with fine muslin cloth in the cage to prevent the entry of natural enemies and other insect pests. The adults and newly emerged nymphs were used for further laboratory studies.
2.2 Rearing of A. gossypii and observation
The seedling of isabgol were raised in earthen pots (8 cm height×11 cm diameter) containing sandy loam soil. Necessary care was taken to maintain the seedling healthy. The potted plant were allowed to grow for about 20 days in the net house and then brought in the laboratory. The newly borned nymphs were transferred individually with the help of fine camel hair brush to each potted plant. Such plants were covered individually with glass chimney. The top end of chimney was covered with a piece of fine muslin cloth and secured in position with the help of rubber band. The nymphs were observed daily to record the molting in different instars, till the formation of adult. The date of adult death was also recorded. The period of different nymphal instars and longevity of adult was worked out.
Different stages of A. gossypii were examined under binocular microscope and critically observed for their colour, shape and other morphological characters. The length and breadth of different nymphal instars and adult stage were measured by using ocular and stage micrometers.
The author is grateful to Dr. B. R. Patel for his valuable guidance and thanks are also due to the principal, C.P. college of Agriculture S.D.A.U. for providing all possible facilities and help to conduct the investigation.
Anonymous, 2008, Districtwise Area, Production, Yield of Important Food and Non-Food Crops in Gujarat State. Krishi Bhawan, Sector 10-A, Gandhinagar
Desai J.C., 2000, Biology of different species of aphids on various host crops and their control. M. Sc. (Agri.) Thesis (Unpublished), Submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar
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